Various and sundry books, articles, and links to web resources discussing Dam-Atoll


Robert S. Arthur's Seminal Articles Outlining The Principles Upon Which Dam-Atoll Is Based

Arthur, Robert S.: "Refraction of Waves by Islands and Shoals with Circular Bottom Contours," Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 27(2), April 1946, pp. 168-177.


Arthur, Robert S.: "The Effect of Islands on Surface Waves," (June 26, 1951), San Diego, CA, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Volume 6no1. http://repositories.cdlib.org/sio/bulletin/6no1, pp. 1-26.

ABSTRACT: The interruption of the progress of waves by an island produces a zone of "wave shadow" to the "wave lee" of the island. Observations have demonstrated that the shadow is never completely devoid of waves and that on occasion relatively high waves may occur in this lee region. An investigation is made of factors influencing the wave conditions in the shadow. The characteristics and mean direction of approach of the incident waves are assumed to be known. The penetration of wave energy into the region to the lee of the island is determined by the following factors: (1) the effect of underwater topography off the island's shores in refracting wave energy into the lee, (2) the effect of currents near the island in refracting energy, (3) the diffraction effect resulting when a barrier interrupts wave fronts, and (4) the effect of variability in direction of wave travel in limiting the extent of the shadow. The quantitative results indicate that the important effects in the penetration of wave energy into the lee are generally the result of refraction by underwater topography and variability in direction. The factors discussed are adequate for explaining quantitatively the wave conditions observed in the lee of the Island of Sicily, San Clemente Island, and Santa Catalina Island. The methods may be of general interest in the prediction of wave heights near the lee shores of islands or on coastal shores which are in the shadow of offshore islands.


Other Articles

Wirt, L.S. and Higgins, T.P.: "DAM-ATOLL Ocean Wave Energy Extraction," Marine Technology Society Meeting, New Orleans, LA., October 11-12 1979.



Abbhasi, S.A. and Abbasi, Naseema: RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, New Delhi, Prentice-Hall Of India, 2006, pp. 60-61.

Google Books link to page discussing Dam-Atoll

Book's Web Page on the site of the publisher, Prentice-Hall of India

Location on Amazon.com


Charlier, R.H. and Justus, J.R.: OCEAN ENERGIES (ELSEVIER OCEANOGRAPHY SERIES), New York, Elsevier, September 1, 1993, p. 148.

Google Books link to page discussing Dam-Atoll

Location on Amazon.com


Considine, Glenn D., ed: VAN NOSTRAND'S SCIENTIFIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, Online Article Entitled "Ocean Resources (Energy)", October 14; Dead-tree edition of VAN NOSTRAND'S SCIENTIFIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Wiley-Interscience (March 3, 2008),

Article's Web Page on the site of the publisher, Wiley-Interscience

Dead-Tree Book's (2002 Edition) Web Page on the site of the publisher, Wiley-Interscience

Location on Amazon.com


Goeoeck, Roland: DIE GROSSEN ERFINDUNGEN: WIND, WASSER DAMPF SONNE, Germany, Siglock Editions, 1989

Location on Amazon.de



Location on Amazon.com


Isaacs, John Dove: John Dove Isaacs (1913-1980) Folder List Papers, c1943-1980, Archives, p. 77.


Jansson, Karl-Gustav and Lunde, Johannes K. and Rindby, Thomas eds: FIRST SYMPOSIUM ON WAVE ENERGY UTILIZATION: PROCEEDINGS 30-OCTOBER-1 NOVEMBER 1979, Gothenburg, Sweden, Chalmers University of Technology, 1980, pp. 207-208.


McCormick, Michael E.: Ocean Wave Energy Conversion, Mineola, NY, Dover Publications, Inc., 2007, pp. 124-133.

Location on Amazon.com


Mei, Chiang C. and Stiassnie, Michael and Yue, Dick K.-P: THEORY AND APPLICATION OF OCEAN SURFACE WAVES, Hackensack, NJ, World Scientific Publishing Company, www.worldscientific.com, 2005 and 1989, p. 406.

Google Books link to page discussing Dam-Atoll

Location on Amazon.com


Myers, Norman and Kent, Jennifer, eds: THE NEW ATLAS OF PLANET MANAGEMENT, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press, http://www.ucpress.edu, 2005, pp. 83-84.

Google Books link to page discussing Dam-Atoll

Location on Amazon.com

Book's Location on the University of California Press' Website


Organization Of The Petroleum Exporting Countries ed: OPEC BULLETIN, v.13:7-11, Vienna, Austria, Organization Of The Petroleum Exporting States, 1982-83, p. 73.

Google Books link to page discussing Dam-Atoll


Reddy, M.P.M.: DESCRIPTIVE PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, Lisse, A.A. Balkema Publishers, www.balkema.nl, 2001, p. 409.

Google Books link to page discussing Dam-Atoll

Location on Amazon.com



Location on Amazon.com


Kreider, Jan F.: DAM-ATOLL FOR WAVE POWER, Popular Science, Science Newsfront, September 1979.

Location On Google Books


PDFs Available On the Web That Mention Dam-Atoll

Wave Power Seminar In South Africa

Prospects For Development Of Non-Conventional And Renewable Sources Of Energy On the Kola Peninsula

Hydrodynamic Capacity Study Of The Wave-Energized Baltic Aeration Pump

5th Miami International Conference On Alternative Energy Sources

WAVES: Chapter 10

Air Turbine Design Study for aWave Energy Conversion System

Flexible floating structures providing for both coastal protection and wave energy exploitation and their integration in coastal management systems - A preliminary assessment -


WebSites Mentioning Dam-Atoll

A Brief Outline of Main Types of Wave Energy Conversion


Vertaal damafmeting (Nederlands-Engels)



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Click on any of the following topics that may catch your eye

Worst Pun Of The Year Every Year

Best And Most Concise Description Of Dam-Atoll

The damndest thing that ever came out of an acoustics lab

Fermat's Principle

The Patent for Dam-Atoll is now in the public domain

The Name Dam-Atoll Tells How It Extracts Ocean Wave Energy

Dam-Atoll An Amalgam Of the Concepts Dam And Atoll

Dams And Kinetic, Potential, and Mechanical Energy

River As Kinetic Energy

Kinetic Energy Transformed To Potential Energy

Potential Energy Transformed Back To Kinetic Energy

Kinetic Energy Turned Into Mechanical Energy

An Atoll Bends And Refracts The Approaching Wave

Wave Velocity

Wave Refraction

When the submerged atoll is dome-shaped, it refracts the wave path to its center

The exact shape of the atoll's dome is critical

the atoll acts as a kind of lense concentrating the wave energy

A Wave's Potential Energy Gets Changed To Kinetic Energy By An Atoll

A wave is nothing but energy

Waves And Potential And Kinetic Energy

A deep-water ocean wave is always half potential and half kinetic energy

Wave is all kinetic energy when it breaks on the center of the atoll

Changing A Wave's Kinetic Energy To Mechanical Energy By Means Of A Vortex


Vortex is a fluid flywheel

Dam-Atoll, Vortex, Guide Vanes

This in sum is how Dam-Atoll works

Smoothing out the succession of wave pulses

Advantages Over The Other Ocean Wave Energy Extraction Devices

Dam-Atoll has only one moving part

Thus Dam-Atoll loses no energy in monkey motion

Monkey motion

Competing Ocean Wave Energy Extraction Devices are monkey motion machines

Energy Efficiency

Diffuser Important To Energy Efficiency

Mathematically Optimal Shape Of Dome Crucial To Energy Efficiency

A Future So Bright For Ocean Systems You Will Need Sunglasses

The Patent for Dam-Atoll is now in the public domain

The Opportunity

Leslie Wirt is available for lectures

Leslie Wirt offers consulting services

Video of working scale model of Dam-Atoll

Dam-Atoll Patent

Michael McCormick's Comments On Dam-Atoll

John Isaac's Comments On Dam-Atoll

Links To Books, Articles, And Web Sites Mentioning Dam-Atoll

Excerpts From Scattering And Absorption Of Surface Waves By Arthur's Island

Future Prospects For Dam-Atoll

Dam-Atoll Humor


About the inventor of Dam-Atoll, Leslie S. Wirt

Contact Leslie Wirt


Next: Excerpts From "Excerpts From Scattering And Absorption Of Surface Waves By Arthur's Island"


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